GLOSSARY

Communication Glossary

  • 10/100Mbps – Old Network Speeds.
  • ADSL – Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line – BB usually 10 times faster Download than upload.
  • Analogue Phone Line (PSTN) – Was the standard but being phased out for Fibre (2025).
  • AP (Access Point) – Creates Wi-Fi Signal to connect mobile devices.
  • Attenuation – Loss of signal Strength, great in solid items than free space (Air).
  • Bandwidth – Difference between highest and lowest frequencies, Data transfer speed.
  • Broad Band (BB) – Highspeed Internet.
  • Bit – Smallest digital signal (1 or 0, On or Off).
  • BT – British Telecom.
  • Byte – Usually refers to 8 Bits.
  • Cabinmate (Cab) – Usually a big green box in the street, local to the user (100-2000 pairs).
  • CAT1 – Obsolete <=1 Mbps for networks OK for Phone Cable.
  • CAT2 – Obsolete <=4Mbps for Token Ring.
  • CAT3 – Obsolete <10Mbps Token 10BASE-T.
  • CAT4 – Obsolete <=16Mbps Token Ring.
  • CAT5 – Obsolete 10-100 Mbps.
  • CAT5e – Good for Home install under 45m, Spec 1000 short 100 Mbps over 50m.
  • CAT6 – Minimum HQ Installation Spec, pairs separated. 10Gbps<37m, 1Gbps.
  • CAT6a – 250 to 600 MHz, Individual Shielded Pairs, Stiff and bulky, expensive for normal use. Shielding on individual pairs. 10Gbps<50m, 1Gbps>50m.
  •   CAT7 – Bulky and expensive to terminate, not recommended for normal use, data centres only. Braid over individual Screened pairs. 600 MHz, 10 Gbps @100m.
  • Cloud – External storage or processing source.
  • Copper Covered Aluminium (CCA) – Cheap, light but unreliable cable.
  • DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) – Used to generate IP Address.
  • Digital Phone Line – Uses a digital Network connection usually 3/4/5G, ADSL or fibre.
  • DNS (Dynamic Name Server) – Converts Web Addresses to IP Address for servers.
  • Download – Receiving data usually over the internet.
  • Distribution Point (DP) – Often at the top of the pole (or factory, UG pavement post etc).
  • Dropwire – Final cable from the DP to the Customers Premises.
  • D-Side – Cables from the Cabinet to the DP.
  • Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) These lines are internet connections on the same line as voice is provided. Unlike ADSL the upload and download speeds are similar, which may suit uploaders better.
  • Electromagnet Magnetic Field (EMF) An interference, usually detrimental to equipment.
  • EncryptionSecures Network connect, important for Wi-Fi. (WEP, WPA, WPA2, TKIP, AES)
  • E-Side – Cables from the Exchange to the Cabinet.
  • Exchange (Ex.) – A building with all connections from the Cabs
  • Firewall – Protects different networks from external connections.
  • FTTC – Fibre To The Cabinet, often gives 40,80 or 120 (Max) Mbps, reduces with distance.
  • FTTP – Fibre To The Property, currently giving up to 1Gbps.
  • Fuse – A safety device that breaks the connection if an excess current flows (Amps).
  • Gbps – Giga Bits Per Second (1000Mbps=1Gbps).
  • Global System for Mobile (GSM)communication used for Mobile connections.
  • IP (Internet Protocol) – Digital Media transport over a network.
  • IP Address – Given to a device either fixed or ad hoc (by DHCP, usually temporary).
  • ISDN – (Integrated Service Digital Network). These are used to provide between 2 to 30 lines to a system and can reduce running costs.
  • Internet A computer network used to connect to the WWW, often vis WAN or LAN.
  • Internet Service Provider (ISP) – Companies that Provide Internet services (BT, Sky, O2 etc)
  • Intranet – A small Network of authorised people connected to a LAN.
  • Kilo Bits Per Second (Kbps or KB/s)Data rate (1000bps = 1Kbps.
  • LAN (Local Area Network)Small network connected to a router.
  • Load Balancing RouterUsing multiple pathways, to increase speed or reliability.
  • MAC (Media Access Control) Address – Used to uniquely identify a connected item.
  • Mbps – Mega Bits Per Second Data Sped rate (1000Kbps=1Mbps or Mb/s)
  • ModemConverts signals (network to ADSL or Fibre Connection).
  • Online – Being connected to the internet for communication, for Gaming, Emails etc
  • OR – OpenReach (SP & ISP, owns the old BT Network).
  • OSD – On Screen Display, usually used for time, date camera name etc.
  • PBX lines – (Private Branch eXchange.) These lines are used where more than one call is required on a single number, often used for the main phone number of company.
  • Ping – Used to obtain a response from powered and working network device.
  • Ping Time – Time to get a network response, very important for VOIP and Gaming.
  • PoE – Power over ethernet, Used for Digit cameras (&other peripherals i.e., Digital Phones)
  • PoE Switch Acts as Switch but can provide PoE to devices that require it.
  • Point Of Sale (POS Machine) – See PDQ
  • Ports – Provides high speed connections through the firewall (Games, CCTV Email etc).
  • PSTN – (Public Switched Telephone Network). These lines are the standard voice lines fitted to residential and businesses. These lines are a single pair of wires, usually incur a line rental cost but are often a prerequisite for Broadband (ADSL) switch off currently planned 2025.
  • Private Wire (PW) –These are used to increase security between 2 remote sites. These are lines are very expensive and becoming less used as BB speeds and encryption increase.
  • RJ45 – Often used to connect IP Cameras (IPCs) can also carry power PoE.
  • Router – Connects different Networks (often combines DHCP, AP, Modem, Firewall etc).
  • SCreen Twisted Pair (SCTP) – A twisted pair, wrapped in a screen to reduce interference.
  • SDSL – symmetric digital subscriber line, Aimed at business where upload speed matters.
  • Search Engines – Google, Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Chrome Web Browser etc.
  • Service Provider (SP)The company that provides a service, usually Phone and/or Internet.
  • Service Set Identifier (SSID) – A ‘Name’ that uniquely Identifies a Wireless Network (WLAN). Often Visible and requires a Password/Encryption Key but can be hidden, slightly increasing Security.
  • SwitchConnect Network Cables allow many devices on a single internet connection.
  • Switches – Network connector for combining multiple wired devices like TVs, PCs, IPCs, etc.
  • Systems – When the ability to hold and transfer calls is required, a system is often used to connect multiple lines to various handsets, often using ISDN lines.
  • UG – Underground.
  • Upload – Sending data usually over the internet.
  • Universal Serial Bus (USB) – A High Speed Data and Power connection (commonly A, B or C)
  • Unshielded Twisted Pair UTP – One or more Pairs without (EMF) shielding.
  • Video Conferencing – Holding a Virtual conference remotely using Video over the internet.
  • Virus – Malware / Spyware / Trojan / Attack / Worms) – All compromise security, in some way.
  • VLAN (Virtual LAN) – Allows connection over different network as if on the same domain.
  • VOIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) – Converts call into IP Packets, Cheaper than PSTN.
  • VPN (Virtual Private Network) – Allows secure Encrypted Data over an insecure network.
  • WAN (Wide Area Network) – Long range network, between cities or countries.
  • Web Browser – Displays Internet Searches and information (text Audio, Pictures & Video).
  • Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) – Wireless Version of LAN usually Wi-Fi (Wi-Fi).
  • World Wide Web (WWW) – A service used to find content on the Web.

CCTV Glossary (also See AV Section)

  • AHD (Advanced High Definition) – HD Analogue technology 4MP Max.
  • AI (artificial Intelligence)In terms of CCTV allows the Image to be understood. This can range from Identifying vehicles, people, left items, removed items, Number plates ANPR etc.
  • Alarm Input/Output – The camera can make Digital outputs i.e., turn this on or off, lift a gate, make a noise etc. or report an external change using it inputs, like motion, forced access, entry request etc.
  • AoC (Audio over Coax) – Allows Audio and Video over a single Coax.
  • Backlight/Smart IR – Used to supplement lowlight images.
  • Broadband (BB) – High Speed Internet connection (ADSL, Fibre), also Bell Box for Alarms.
  • Bandwidth – used in reference to Broadband speed, high is faster and better.
  • Balun (Balanced/Unbalanced) – Coverts Coax to Twisted pairs (Allows 4 Cameras on CAT6).
  • BNC – Usually used for Analogues Cameras and can also transmit Power.
  • Ch (Channel) – A Ch. Is used for each Camera i.e., 4Ch. NVR/DVR can record up to 4 Cameras.
  • Coax – Round cable used for Analogue Picture transfer, can also carry power.
  • ColorView – Uses White light (often built into the camera) to produce full colour images without any other light. Sounds good but the white light can be blinding if installed badly or in low positions, also highlights the cameras position, whereas IR can be Invisible to the human eye. Illumination range limited 10-25m 9 Current norm).
  • Compression / JPEG MPEG4 H.264 – The more the video feed is compressed, the less HDD space is used but the quality can suffer, MPEG 4 is standard, introduced in 2004.
  • Dark Fighter – Can create full colour images in very little light, needs to be seen to be believed, but eh price climb for good cameras.
  • Digital WDR – Electronic copy of ‘True’ WDR, cheaper but not as effective.
  • Digital Zoom – See Zoom Digital
  • DVR (Digital Video Recorder)For Analogue Cameras, simple, cheaper usually than DVR.
  • Encryption A method of securing data i.e., Video would require a user ‘Key’ to view.
  • FPS (Frames Per Second / Rate)Number of Pictures captured per Second, 30Fps is Smooth enough of most uses.
  • H.265 (HEVC) – Is 50% smaller than H264, introduced in 2013.
  • H265+ (Hikvision) – 50% Smaller than standard H.265 but requires more processing power.
  • HDD (Hard Disk Drive) – The physical unit that store the digital information (Video), Like A PC HDD but designed to work nonstop 24/7/365, so more expensive but worth the extra.
  • HDR (High Dynamic Resolution)Increases Contrast more realist with deeper colours.
  • HVR (Hybrid Video Recorder) – Comines both DVR & NVR, usually a DVR with NVR, were expensive but now often built in DVRs, usually our DVR allow 1 or 2 IPCs per 4DVR Ch.
  • IP (Internet Protocol) – Data protocol used by standard PC (Network Cables and Switches).
  • IPC (IP Camera) – Digital Camera using standard IP.
  • IR (Infra-Red) – Used to light night pictures and gives a Black and White image. Can be invisible to the human eye, so more covert but lack of colour can make identification more difficult. Ranges from a few meters to hundreds.
  • LUX – The ability to produce an image in low light 0.1LUX or lower is expensive but good for poor lighting.
  • MP (Mega Pixel) – Million Pixel, i.e., 1,000,000 pixels.
  • NVR (Network Video Recorder) – Used for IPC, more complex than DVR, Best Picture Quality
  • OSD (On Screen Display) – Usually used for time, date camera name etc.
  • Pixel – The smallest block of a picture shown or recorded, the more the better as images can be zoomed digitally and kept detail but increase file and data sizes.
  • PAL – Low Res TV 720*480 0.4MP.
  • PoC Power over Coax – Analogue Video AND Power over a single round Coax Cable.
  • PoE – Power over ethernet, Used for Digit cameras (&other peripherals).
  • PT (Pan and Tilt) – The zoom feature is often Digital rather than Optical.
  • PTZ (Pan Tilt and Zoom) – the camera can be moved remotely and zoom in using powerful lens which keeps the image quality.
  • RJ45 – Often used to connect IP Cameras (IPC’s) can also carry power.
  • RS-232 – Point to point communication Superseded by RS485.
  • RS-485 – Used to communicate to multiple devices, often used for PTZ Cameras.
  • SDD (Solid Disk Drive)Very fast, solid state but relatively small, fragile, and expensive.
  • Starlite – Captures good images in low light, not in the same arena as Dark Fight but then nor is the price.
  • Switches – Network connector for combining IPC’s, can but PoE.
  • Tour – Often refers to a pre-set programmed set of positions for a PTZ Camera.
  • WDR (Wide Dynamic Range) – More detail in less lit areas with less blinding by bright areas.
  • WDR v HDR – WDR is hardware and designed for images and video, wear as HDR is software processing and not good for fast moving images.
  • Zoom Digital – Increases the size of each pixel, requires Hi Pixel count to keep details.
  • Zoom Lens / Optical – Keeps the same number of pixels while zooming, great for detail at distance but loses the picture outside of the zoomed area and increases Cost.

Audio Video (AV) Glossary

  • 1080I – HD image but Interlaced Scan, (Every other Horizonal line is refreshed per frame) not great for Rapidly changing Pictures like Games or Sport.
  • 1080P – Full HD with full screen refresh usually 50 HZ Progressive.
  • 1080p60 – Full HD at 60 Fps (Frame per Second).
  • 4K UHD – 3840*2160 Pixels = 8.3MegaPixels.
  • 4K60 – 4K @ 60 Fps (Frames per Second) >5m Standard Cable.
  • 8K UHD – 7680*3420 (Available but expensive and limited content).
  • Audio Return Channel (ARC) – Built in HDMI cables and allows audio connection, Useful to return the TVs Live Audio back the Amp but has limitations.
  • CEC – Anynet+(Samsung), Bravia Link (Sony), Kuro Link (Pioneer), RIHO (Onkyo), SimpLink (LG), VIERA Link (Panasonic) etc.
  • Consumer Electronic Control (CEC) – Control over HDMI like Source switching
  • eARC – Enhanced ARC with more bandwidth Channels, not always backward compatible.
  • Full HD/ FHD / 1080 – 1920H*1080V (vertical and Horizonal).
  • HD – High Definition (usually with Quality – Full, UHD, etc).
  • HD Ready – High Definition, could mean only 1280H*720V.
  • HDBaseT – Module for UHD with cables >10m, often used for Matrix and distribution.